Before deciding whether the U.S. should recognize Israel, Harry Truman feared that Zionist aspirations would lead to a racial or a theocratic state. Zionist leader Chaim Weizmann wrote Truman a series of letters including one seven page, single-spaced, reassuring him that Zionists intended a thoroughly secular state similar to ours and the British. Truman confirmed that understanding in his May 14, 1948 recognition of the provisional government no of "the Jewish state" (the Israeli wording he crossed out) but of "the State of Israel."

Similarly, the oft-cited Balfour Declaration also rejected a Jewish dominant or supremacist state:

His majesty’s Government views with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will se their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country." (Italics mine)

And certainly nothing in any of these early documents entitles Zionist militias to massacre and ethnically cleanse non-Jews and prohibit their return as has been the case now for 62 years. "The illegitimacy of their ethnic cleansing was recognized in UN Resolution 194 of 1948, with the restoration of Palestinians to their land a condition of Israel's 1949 admission to the UN."
Al Nakba Awareness Project

These photographs show that Palestine was not "a land without people":


By Central News Agency [CC BY 3.0 (], via Wikimedia Commons


Edwin Montagu, the Secretary of State for India and the only Jewish member of the government, considered Zionism a threat to the Jews of Britain and other countries. He denounced Zionism as a “mischievous political creed, untenable by any patriotic citizen of the United Kingdom.” Montagu rejected the idea of the Jews as a nation and argued that the demand for recognition as a separate nation put at risk their struggle to become citizens with equal rights in the countries in which they lived.

Montagu was the second British Jew to enter the Cabinet, the inner circle of government. However, he was strongly opposed to Zionism, which he called "a mischievous political creed", and opposed the Balfour Declaration of 1917, which he considered anti-semitic and whose terms he managed to modify. In a memo to the Cabinet, he outlined his views on Zionism thus: "...I assume that it means that Mahommedans [Muslims] and Christians are to make way for the Jews and that the Jews should be put in all positions of preference and should be peculiarly associated with Palestine in the same way that England is with the English or France with the French, that Turks and other Mahommedans in Palestine will be regarded as foreigners, just in the same way as Jews will hereafter be treated as foreigners in every country but Palestine. Perhaps also citizenship must be granted only as a result of a religious test."[4] He was opposed by his cousin Herbert Samuel, a moderate Zionist who became the first High Commissioner of the British Mandate of Palestine. (Reference Link)


The Land of Israel was the birthplace of the Jewish people. Here their spiritual, religious and political identity was shaped. Here they first attained to statehood, created cultural values of national and universal significance and gave to the world the eternal Book of Books.

After being forcibly exiled from their land, the people kept faith with it throughout their Dispersion and never ceased to pray and hope for their return to it and for the restoration in it of their political freedom.

Large celebratory crowd outside the
Dizengoff House (now called Independence Hall) to hear the declaration and signing of Israel's Declaration of Independence, dated May 14, 1948.

Impelled by this historic and traditional attachment, Jews strove in every successive generation to re-establish themselves in their ancient homeland. In recent decades they returned in their masses. Pioneers, ma'pilim [(Hebrew) - immigrants coming to Eretz-Israel in defiance of restrictive legislation] and defenders, they made deserts bloom, revived the Hebrew language, built villages and towns, and created a thriving community controlling its own economy and culture, loving peace but knowing how to defend itself, bringing the blessings of progress to all the country's inhabitants, and aspiring towards independent nationhood.

In the year 5657 (1897), at the summons of the spiritual father of the Jewish State, Theodore Herzl, the First Zionist Congress convened and proclaimed the right of the Jewish people to national rebirth in its own country.

This right was recognized in the Balfour Declaration of the 2nd November, 1917, and re-affirmed in the Mandate of the League of Nations which, in particular, gave international sanction to the historic connection between the Jewish people and Eretz-Israel and to the right of the Jewish people to rebuild its National Home.

The catastrophe which recently befell the Jewish people - the massacre of millions of Jews in Europe - was another clear demonstration of the urgency of solving the problem of its homelessness by re-establishing in Eretz-Israel the Jewish State, which would open the gates of the homeland wide to every Jew and confer upon the Jewish people the status of a fully privileged member of the comity of nations.
Survivors of the Nazi holocaust in Europe, as well as Jews from other parts of the world, continued to migrate to Eretz-Israel, undaunted by difficulties, restrictions and dangers, and never ceased to assert their right to a life of dignity, freedom and honest toil in their national homeland.

In the Second World War, the Jewish community of this country contributed its full share to the struggle of the freedom- and peace-loving nations against the forces of Nazi wickedness and, by the blood of its soldiers and its war effort, gained the right to be reckoned among the peoples who founded the United Nations.

David Ben-Gurion (First Prime Minister of Israel) publicly pronouncing the Declaration of the State of Israel, May 14 1948, Tel Aviv, Israel, in the old Tel Aviv Museum of Art building on Rothshild St. Photographer: Shimon Rudolph Weissenstein.

On the 29th November, 1947, the United Nations General Assembly passed a resolution calling for the establishment of a Jewish State in Eretz-Israel; the General Assembly required the inhabitants of Eretz-Israel to take such steps as were necessary on their part for the implementation of that resolution. This recognition by the United Nations of the right of the Jewish people to establish their State is irrevocable.
This right is the natural right of the Jewish people to be masters of their own fate, like all other nations, in their own sovereign State.

Accordingly we, members of the People's Council, representatives of the Zionist movement, are here assembled on the day of the termination of the British Mandate over Eretz-Israel and, by virtue of our natural and historic right and on the strength of the resolution of the United Nations General Assembly, hereby declare the establishment of a Jewish State in Eretz-Israel, to be known as the State of Israel.

WE DECLARE that, with effect from the moment of the termination of the Mandate being tonight, the eve of Sabbath, the 6th Iyar, 5708 (15th May, 1948), until the establishment of the elected, regular authorities of the State in accordance with the Constitution which shall be adopted by the Elected Constituent Assembly not later than the 1st October 1948, the People's Council shall act as a Provisional Council of State, and its executive organ, the People's Administration, shall be the Provisional Government of the Jewish State, to be called "Israel".

THE STATE OF ISRAEL will be open for Jewish immigration and for the Ingathering of the Exiles; it will foster the development of the country for the benefit of all its inhabitants; it will be based on freedom, justice and peace as envisaged by the prophets of Israel; it will ensure complete equality of social and political rights to all its inhabitants irrespective of religion, race or sex; it will guarantee freedom of religion, conscience, language, education and culture; it will safeguard the Holy Places of all religions; and it will be faithful to the principles of the Charter of the United Nations.

THE STATE OF ISRAEL is prepared to cooperate with the agencies and representatives of the United Nations in implementing the resolution of the General Assembly of the 29th November, 1947, and will take steps to bring about the economic union of the whole of Eretz-Israel.

WE APPEAL to the United Nations to assist the Jewish people in the building-up of its State and to receive the State of Israel into the comity of nations.

WE APPEAL - in the very midst of the onslaught launched against us now for months - to the Arab inhabitants of the State of Israel to preserve peace and participate in the upbuilding of the State on the basis of full and equal citizenship and due representation in all its provisional and permanent institutions.

WE EXTEND our hand to all neighbouring states and their peoples in an offer of peace and good neighbourliness, and appeal to them to establish bonds of cooperation and mutual help with the sovereign Jewish people settled in its own land. The State of Israel is prepared to do its share in a common effort for the advancement of the entire Middle East.

WE APPEAL to the Jewish people throughout the Diaspora to rally round the Jews of Eretz-Israel in the tasks of immigration and upbuilding and to stand by them in the great struggle for the realization of the age-old dream - the redemption of Israel.




In May 2004, the famous Jewish Conductor Daniel Barenboim was awarded the Wolf Prize at a ceremony at the Israeli Knesset. Remarks by Mr. Barenboim, receiving the award, one of Israel's highest honors, for "achievements in the interest of mankind and friendly relations among people ... irrespective of nationality, race, colour, religion, sex or political views."

I am asking today with deep sorrow: Can we, despite all our achievements, ignore the intolerable gap between what the Declaration of Independence promised and what was fulfilled, the gap between the idea and the realities of Israel? Does the condition of occupation and domination over another people fit the Declaration of Independence? Is there any sense in the independence of one at the expense of the fundamental rights of the other? Can the Jewish people whose history is a record of continued suffering and relentless persecution, allow themselves to be indifferent to the rights and suffering of a neighboring people? Can the State of Israel allow itself an unrealistic dream of an ideological end to the conflict instead of pursuing a pragmatic, humanitarian one based on social justice?

Photo Credit: File: Daniel Barenboim.jpg es: Daniel Barenboim dirige un ensayo de la orquesta del Divan Este-Oeste 2005. Pilas (Sevilla), 25-07-2005. Se ensaya la Primera sinfonia,
<<Titan>> (4 degrees
- 05:02, 23 December 2014


District of al-Quds (Jerusalem): 37 localities


Village (population)

(x) means unknown population number
[means village name changed to Hebrew name]

Al-Jura (420) - [Ora]
Al-Maliha (1940) - [Manahat]
Al-Qabu (260)
Al-Qastal (90)
Al-Walaja (1650) - [Amminadav]
Allar (x)
Aqqur (40)
Artuf (350) - [Naham/Har Tuv]
Beit Itab (540)
Beit Mahsir (2400) - [Beit Me'ir]
Beit Naqquba (240) - [Beit Neqofa]
Beit Thul (260)
Beit Umm al-Meis (70)
Bureij (720)
Deir al-Hawa (60)
Deir ash-Sheikh (220)
Deir Rafat (430)

Deir Yasin (610) - [Kefar Shaul]
Deiraban (2100) - [Mahseya]
Ein Karim (3180) - [Ein Kerem]
Ishwa (620) - [Eshta'ol]
Islin (260)
Jarash (190)
Kasla (280) - [Kesalon]
Khirbet al-Lauz (450)
Khirbet al-Umur (270)
Khirbet Deir Amr (10) - [Etanim]
Khirbet Ismallah (20)
Khirbet Nataf (40)
Lifta (2550) - [Me-Neftoah]
Qaluniya (910)
- [Mevassert Jerushal.]
Ras Abu Ammar (620)
Sar'a (340)
Saris (560) - [Shoresh]
Sataf (450)
Suba (620) - [Zova]
Sufla (60)

District of al-Khalil (Hebron): 15 localities

Ajjur (3730)
Al-Qubeiba (1060) - [Lakhish]
Barqusiya (330)
Beit Jibrin (2430) - [Beit Guvrin]
Beit Nattif (2150) - [Netiv B"L]
Deir ad-Dubban (730)
Deir Nakhkhas (600)
Kidna (450)
Mughallis (540)
Ra'na (190)
Tall as-Safi (1290)
Zakariya (1180) - [Kefar Zekharya]
Zeita (330)
Zikrin (960)
Ad-Dawayima (3710) - [Amazya]

District of Gaza: 45 localities

Al-Faluja (4670)
Al-Jiya (1230) - [Ge'a]
Al-Jura (2420) - [Ashkelon]
Al-Masmiya al-Kabira (2510)
- [Mashmia' Shalom]
Al-Masmiya al-Saghira (530)
- [Kefar Ha-Rif]
Al-Muharraqa (580)
As-Sawafir al-Gharbiya (1030)
- [Merkaz Shapira]
As-Sawafir ash-Shamaliya (680)
As-Sawafir ash-Sharquiya (960)
- [En Zurim]
Barbara (2410) - [Mavqi'im]
Barqa (890) - [Gan Yavne]
Batani al-Gharbi (980) - [Azriqam]
Batani ash-Sharqi (650)
Beit Affa (700) - [Yad Natan]
Beit Daras (2750)
Beit Jirya (940)
Beit Tima (1060)
Bi'lin (180)
Bureir (2740)
Deir Suneid (730)
Dimra (520) - [Erez]
Haj (810)
Hamama (5010) - [Ashqelon-Barnea]
Hatta (970) - [Rewaha]
Hirbiya (2240) - [Karmiya]
Huleiqat (420)
Ibdis (540)
Iraq al-Manshiya (2010)
Iraq Suweidan (660)
Isdud (4630)
Jaladiya (360) - [Zeharya]
Julis (1030) - [Hodiya]
Juseir (1180) - [Menuha]
Karatiya (1370)
Kaufakha (500)
Kaukaba (680) - [Kokhav]
Khirbet al-Khisas (150)
Najd (620)
Ni'iliya (1310)
Qastina (890)
Summeil (950) - [Nahala]
Sumsum (1290)
Tall al-Turmus (760) - [Arugot]
Yasur (1070)

District of Tulkarm: 10 localities

Kafr Saba (1270) - [Kefar Saba]
Kh. al-Jalama (70) - [Lahavot Haviva]
Kh. al-Manshiya (260) -[Giv'at Hayyim]
Khirbet Beit Lid (460) - [Nordiya]
Khirbet Zalafa (210) - [Giv'at Hayyim]
Miska (880)
Qaqun (1970) - [Yikkon]
Tabsar (x) - [Ra'anana]
Kafr Saba (1270) ' [Kefar Sava]
Umm Khalid (970) - [Netanya]

District of Ramleh: 54 localities

A.. Fadl as-Sautariya (x)
- [Talme Menashe]
Abu Shusha (870)
Al-Barriya (510) - [Azarya]
Al-Burj (480)
Al-Haditha (760) - [Hadid]
Al-Kheima (190)
Al-Kuneisiya (40)
Al-Latrun (390)
Al-Mansura (90)
Al-Mughar (1740)
Al-Mukheizin (200) - [Yad Binyamin]
Al-Muzeiri'a - [Mazor]
Al-Qubab (1980) - [Kefar Bin Nun]
Al-Qubeiba (1720) - [Kefar Gebirol]
Al-Tira (1290) - [Bareqet]
Aqir (2480) - [Qiryat Eqron]
At-Tina (750)
Bashshit (1620) - [Aseret]
Beit Jiz (550) - [Har'el]
Beit Nabala (2310) - [Beit Nehemya]
Beit Shanna (210)
Beit Susin (210) - [Ta'oz]
Bir Ma'in (510)
Bir Salim (unknown) - [Nezer Sereni]
Burfiliya (730)
Daniyal (410) - [Kefar Daniel]

Deir Abu Salama (60)
Deir Aiyub (320)
Deir Muheisin (460)
Deir Tarif (1750) - [Beit Arif]
Idhnibba (490)
Innaba (1420)
Jilya (330)
Jimzu (1510) - [Gimzo]

Jindas (x) - [Ginnaton]
Kharruba (170)
Khirbet adh-Dhuheiriya (100)
Khirbet al-Buweira (190)
Khulda (280) - [Mishmar David]
Majdal Yaba (1520) - [Rosh Ha-Ayin]
N... (1470)
Nabi Rubin (1420)
Qatra (1210) - [Gedera]
Qazaza (940)
Qula (1010)
Sajad (370)
Salbit (510) - [Shal'avim]
Sarafand al-Amar (1950)
Sarafand al-Kharab (1040) - [Nes Ziona]
Seidun (210)
Shahma (280) - [Qidron]
Shilta (100)
Yibna (5420) - [Yavne]
Zarnuqa (2380)

District of Jaffa: 19 localities

Al-Haram (520) - [Reshef]
Al-Kheiriya (1420)
Al-Mirr (170) - [Kefar Ha-Baptistim]
Al-Yahudiya (5650) - [Yehud]
As-Safiriya (3070)
Beit Dajan (3840) - [Beit Dagan]
Biyar Adas (300) - [Ganne Am]
Fajja (1200) - [Petah Tikva]
Jalil (470) - [Gelilot]
Jammasin (1810) - [Tel Aviv]
Kafr Ana (2800) - [Neve Efrayim]
Rantiya (590) - [Nofekh]
Salama (6670) - [Kefar Shalem]
Saqiya (1100) - [Or Yehuda]
Sheikh Muwannis (1930) - [Ramat Aviv]
Yazur (4030) - [Azor]

District of Haifa: 45 localities

? Ein Ghazal (2170) - [Ofer]
Abu Shusha (720) - [Mishmar Ha'Emeq]
Abu Zureiq (550) - [Nahala'ot]
Al-Buteimat (110) - [Regavim]
Al-Kafrin (920)
Al-Khureiba (x)
Al-Mansi (1200) - [Midrakh Oz]
Al-Mazar (210)
Al-Tira (5270)
Al-Waraqani (x) - [Kefar Barukh]
Ar-Rihaniya (240) - [Ein Ha-Emeq]
As-Sarafand (290) - [Zerufa]
As-Sindiyana (1250) - [Ammiqam]
Balad ash-Sheikh (1420) - [Tel Hanan]
Bureika (29) - [Zikhron Ya'akov]
Daliyat ar-Ruha (280)
- [Ramot Menashe]
Ein Haud (650) - [En Hod]
Ghubaiya at-Tahta (1130)
- [Mishmar Ha'Emeq]
Ijzim (2970) - [Kerem Maharal]
Jaba (1140)
Jalama (x)

Kafr Lam (340) - [Ha-Bonim]
Khirbet ad-Damun (340)
Khirbet al-Burj (x)
Khirbet al-Majdal (x) - [Sede Yitzhaq]
Khirbet al-Manshiya (260)
Khirbet al-Mansura
Khirbet Qumbaza (x)
Khirbet Umm ad-Daraj (x)
Khubbeiza (290) - [Even Yitzhaq]
Lidd (Al-Awwadim) (640)
Qannir (750)
Qira wa Qamun (410) - [Yoqne'am]
Qisariya (960) - [Caesarea]
Sabbarin (1700) - [Ammiqam]
Tantura (1490) - [Dor / Nahsholim]
Umm ash-Sha'uf (480) - [Giv'at Nili]
Umm az-Zinat (1470)
Wadi Ara (230) - [Barqai]
Yajur (610) - [Nesher]

District of Akka (Acre): 25 localities

Ad-Damun (1310)
Al-Bassa (2950) - [Shelomi]
Al-Birwa (1460) - [Ahihud]
Al-Ghabisiya (690)
Al-Kabri (1530) - [Kabri]
Al-Mansura (360)
Amqa (1240) - [Amqa]
An-Nahr (610)
Ar-Ruweis (330)
As-Sumeiriya (760) - [Regba]
Az-Zib (1910) - [Gesher Ha-Ziv]
Deir al-Qasi (1250) - [Elqosh]
Iqrit (490)
Kafr I'nan (360)
Khirbet Ja'atun (x)
Khirbet Samah (360)
Kuweikat (1050) - [Beit Ha-Emeq]
Manshiya (1080)
Mi'ar (770)
Nabi Rubin (1420) - [Even Menachem]
Suhmata (1130) - [Zuri'el]
Suruh (x)
Tarbikha (1000) - [Shomera]
Umm al-Faraj (800) - [Ben Ammi]

District of Nazareth: 4 localities

Indur (620)
Al-Mujeidil (1900) -[Migdal Ha-Emeq]
Ma'lul (690)
Saffuriya (4330) - [Zippori]

District of Jenin: 6 localities

Al-Lajjun (1103) - [Megiddo]
Al-Mazar (270)
Ein al-Mansi (90)
Khirbet al-Jaufa (unknown)
Nuris (580) - [Nurit]
Zir'in (1420) - [Yizre'el]

District of Beisan (Beth Shean): 22 localities

Al-Ashrafiya (230) - [Sheluhot]
Al-Bira (260)
Al-Hamidiya (220) - [Hamadya]
Al-Murassas (460)
As-Samiriya (x) - [Sede Terumot]
At-Taqa (x)
At-Tira (150) - [Gazit]
Danna (190)
Farwana (330)
Hakimiya (520)
Jabbul (250)
Kafra (430)
Kaukab al-Hawa (300) - [(Belvoir)]
Khirbet al-Mazar (x)
Khirbet az-Zawiya (x)
Khirbet Umm Sabuna (x)
Khirbet Umm Sarhan (x)
Khirbet Zab'a (1931:143) - [Doshen]
Qumiya (440) - [Ein Harod]
Sirin (810)
Tall ash-Shauk (120) - [Nir David]
Yubla (210)

District of Taburiya (Tiberias): 24 localities

Al-Hadatha (520)
Al-Hamma (290) - [Hammat Gader]
Al-Manara (x) - [Menora Hospital]
Al-Manshiya (1938:362)
Al-Mansura (x)
Al-Ubeidiya (870) - [Beit Zera']
An-Nuqeib (320)
As-Samakiya (380) - [(Cafarnaum)]
As-Samra (290) - [Ha-On]
Ash-Shajara (770) - [Ilaniya]
At-Tabigha (330) - [(Heptapegon)]
Ghuweir Abu Shusha (1240) - [Ginossar]
Hittin (1190) - [Kefar Zeitim]
Kafr Sabt (480) - [Sede Ilan]
Khirbet al-Wa'ra as-Sauda (x)
Lubiya (2350) - [Lavi]
Ma'dhar (480)
Majdal (360)
Nimrin (320)
Samakh (3460) - [Ma'agan]
Ulam (720)
Yaquq (210) - [Huqoq]

District of Safed (Zefat): 76 localitiesAbil al-Qamh (330) - [Yuval]

Ad-Darbashiya (310)
Adh-Dhahiriya at-Tahta (350)
Al-Abbisiya (830) - [Kefar Szold]
Al-Amir (x) - [Amir]
Al-Buweiziya (510)
Al-Ghabbatiya (60)
Al-Ghuraba (200) - [Gonen]
Al-Hamra (730) - [Lehavot Habashan]
Al-Huseiniya (340)
Al-Khalisa (1840) - [Kiryat Shemona]
Al-Khisas (530) - [Ha-Gosherim]
Al-Madahil (1931:100) - [Kefar Szold]
Al-Malikiya (360) - [Malkiya ]
Al-Manara (490) - [Menara]
Al-Manshiya (1938: 362)
Al-Mansura (360) - [She'ar Yashuv]
Al-Muftakhira (350)
Al-Qeitiya (940) - [Beit Hilel]
Al-Ulmaniya (260)
Al-Waiziya (x)
Alma (950) - [Alma]
Ammuqa (140) - [Ammuqa]
An-Na'ima (1030) - [Kefar Blum]
Ar-Ras al-Ahmar (620)
- [Keren Ben Zimra]
Arab az-Zubeib
As-Salihiya (1520) - [Kefar Blum]

As-Sanbariya (130) - [Ma'ayan Barukh]
Ash-Shuna (170)
At-Tuleil - [Hulata]
Az-Zawiya (760) - [Ne'ot Mordekhai]
Az-Zuq al-Fauqani (160) - [Yuval]
Beisamun (20)
Biriya (240)
Dallata (360) - [Dalton]
Dawwara (700) - [Amir]
Deishum (590) - [Dishon]
Ein az-Zeitun (820) - [Ein Zeitim]
Fara (320)
Farradiya (670) - [Parod]
Fir'in (740) - [Hazor Ha-Gelilit]
Harrawi (x) - [Qeren]
Hunin (1620) - [Margaliyot]

Ja'una (1150) - [Rosh Pina]
Jahula (420)
Jubb Yusuf (170)
Kafr Bir'im (710)
Khan ad-Duweir (1938:150) - [Senir]
Khirbet al-Hiqab/Uqeiba (x)
Khirbet al-Muntar (x)
Khirbet as-Samman - [Shamir]
Khirbet Kharraza (x)
Khirbet Khati (x)
Khiyam al-Walid (280)
- [Lehavot Habashan]
Kirad al-Baqqara (360)
Kirad al-Ghannama (350)
- [Ayyelet Ha-Shahar]
Lazzaza (230) - [Beit Hilel]
Mallaha (890)
Mansurat al-Kheit (200)
- [Kefar Ha-Nasi]
Marus (80)
Meirun (290) - [Meron]
Mughr al-Kheit (940)
- [Hazor Ha-Gelilit]
Nabi Yusha' (70) - [Ramot Naftali]
Qabba'a (460)
Qadas (290)
Qaddita (240)
Safsaf (910) - [Sifsufa]
Saliha (1070) - [Yir'on]
Sammu'i (310) - [Kefar Shamma'i]
Sasa (1130) - [Sasa]
Shauqa at-Tahta (200) - [Dafna]
Teitaba (530) - [Dalton]
Yarda (20) - [Mishmar Ha-Yarden]
Zangharriya (840)
Zuq at-Tahtani (1050) - [Beit Hilel]

Yarda (20) - [Mishmar Ha-Yarden]

Zangharriya (840)
Zuq at-Tahtani (1050) - [Beit Hilel]